Article published on the Web of the  Brithis Killifish Association  

 

TANZANIA 1995.

Ian Sainthouse.
Part 1. Arusha to Dar es Salaam via Mikumi.

 

 

On Sunday 14th June 1995, we set off from our hotel on the eastern side of the town of Arusha at the start of our fish collecting safari, which was to last for two weeks. During this time we were to travel approximately 4500 kilometres over roads varying from first class tarmac to indescribable dirt tracks. We had planned to take a roundabout route in an anti-clockwise direction travelling from Arusha via Dodoma, Mikumi and the Selous Game Reserves, Dar es Salaam, Tanga and back to Arusha.
My travelling companions were Brian Watters from Canada and Ruud Wildekamp from Holland. We had met on the Saturday morning at Amsterdam's Schipol airport to take the non stop KLM flight to Kilimanjaro airport, which is located about 45 minutes drive east of Arusha in northern Tanzania.
 Our first stop on the Sunday was at the offices of the company who were providing our Landrover to finalise our arrangements. We did not expect to get away much before midday and had planned to make our first overnight stop at the Tarangire National Park. We, in fact, got away much earlier than anticipated and therefore decided to continue past Tarangire to the town of Kondoa.
Just over six kilometres south of the point where the Tarangire Park joins the main road, is what must be the most frequently visited Nothobranchius locality. This is a pool containing the fish which for many years was known as N. sp. Manyara, but in the last few years more correctly known as N. neumanni. We had visited this locality at the end of our 1993 trip and at that time it was totally dry. This time, albeit only one week later in the year, there was so much water that we had difficulty in finding the fish. Eventually, having collected a few, we continued on our way.
Three months or so prior to our trip John Rosenstock (Denmark) had travelled along this same road and on his return to Denmark told us that he had found a new locality for N. neumanni three kilometres south of the well known site. We searched the area but could not find it. We were just four kilometres from the Manyara locality when we found water, well hidden from view in amongst trees with an Acacia bush thicket between the water and the road. The pool contained N. neumanni, which in appearance looked like the Manyara fish. We did not collect them. What we could not resolve, until we returned home, was whether or not this was John Rosenstock's locality. The subsequent comparison of notes with John confirmed that the two localities were not the same.
 The remainder of the journey to Kondoa was uneventful. Generally the area was too dry. We located a couple of pools but they revealed nothing. That night, over a few beers in the hotel, we decided that instead of setting off due south to Dodoma we would first make a detour of a few miles to the west to the Bubu River - a place where N. taeniopygus was previously collected (population KTZ 85/5). We left empty handed! Despite searching an hour or so, not a single specimen could be found.
Most of the route between Kondoa and Dodoma was either too hilly or too dry or both! About mid way between the two towns, near the village of Mbuyuni, we noticed an area to the west of the road that was bright green in colour - an obvious sign of moisture! On closer examination we found some water about 100 meters from the road and in it we found N. taeniopygus. These were quite large specimens and we had serious doubts about their ability to survive the next two weeks. Survive they did and are now distributed amongst aquarists as N. taeniopygus Mbuyuni TAN95/2.
By the time we reached our hotel in Dodoma, it was well past nightfall. The following day we were to set off in an easterly direction towards Morogoro, however, before reaching the town we planned to turn south again taking the road to Kilosa and Mikumi and then on to the safari lodge in the middle of the National Park. The turning off the main Dodoma to Morogoro road occurred soon after the road dropped down from the interior plateau onto the coastal plain. Soon, near the village of Kidete, we encountered water and in it N. melanospilus. These were collected and are distributed as N. melanospilus Kidete TAN95/3.
For the next week, almost without exception, this species would appear in our nets every time we stopped at water which looked to be a suitable Nothobranchius habitat.
We made a detour off the road to Mikumi, to visit the Mkata plain in the area to the north of the National Park. Here is the type locality of N. steinforti, a fish that is rare in the hobby and where the stock that is circulating appears to have modified its colouration since it was collected about 20 years ago. Unfortunately the whole area was dry so we were unable to locate any of this species. We continued on our way to the Mikumi Wildlife Lodge, which was to be our base for the next two nights.
The following day we planned to make a day trip to the town of Ifakara and the nearby Kabasira Marshes.
 On the Wednesday morning we left the hotel just prior to daybreak intent on getting to Ifakara and the Kabasira Swamp. To get there we first had to get to the village of Mikumi, which is just outside the western boundary of the National Park. At Mikumi we turned south. We knew that it would take us three hours to reach Ifakara as John Rosenstock had travelled the road a few months before us. Between Ifakara and the Kilombero River he had collected two species of Nothobranchius. The first he instantly identified as N. melanospilus but the other was too young too show any colouration. Back in Denmark the young fish grew on and turned into N. lourensi. This was something of a surprise as, up until then, this species was only known from the type locality between Kwaraza and the Ruvu River, about 150kms to the north east of Ifakara.
The road to Ifakara was undulating, the area being influenced by a range of hills just to the west. It was not until we got to Ifakara itself that the road levelled out. Two kilometres south of the town we came across the first possible biotype. It was an area of green grassland, on the eastern side of the road, which in the area was on a small shallow embankment. At the foot of the embankment there was a small pool, but, as expected, it yielded nothing. We were more interested in the grassland, which was obviously wet. If there wasn't any surface water in the area then it must have only dried out in the past few days as, with no water available, the grass rapidly dries in the fierce sunshine.
We found water some little distance away from the road, close to a few trees. As expected, following John Rosenstock's experience, we found N. lourensi. We also found N. melanospilus but they were relatively scarce, particularly males. Initially we thought we only had one specimen.
The only way of getting a net into this water was first to trample down the grass to create a small pool. It was whilst doing this that we noticed a number of pairs of small silver spots close to the water surface. On collecting these we discovered that the silver spots were from the area just above the eyes of yet another Nothobranchius species. It was a superbly coloured species belonging to the sub genus Aphyobranchius. This is a sub genus consisting of two recognised species viz. N. janpapi, N. luekei and possibly a third - N. willerti. This fish we had collected did not correspond to any of these species so we suspected that most probably, it was an undescribed species. For identification purposes it was referred to as N. sp. Ifakara TAN95/4.
Whilst the others continued fishing for males of N. melanospilus, I returned to the Landrover with the bucket of fish we had collected, to start bagging them up.
 I had previously mentioned that we thought we only had one male N. melanospilus so I had to find it. This was not easy in a bucketful of very muddy water but I knew it was there because I put it there in the first place and every now and then I caught a flash of colour as it momentarily appeared at the water surface. For over a quarter of an hour it evaded me but eventually I got it and put it into a bag with clean water. It was only then that I realised that it was not a male of N. melanospilus but a superbly coloured male of what almost certainly was yet another new species. By now the others had returned and the question to be answered was "where were the females?"
We could easily identify the females of N. lourensi and N. sp. Ifakara so these were set to one side. Closer examination of, what at first sight looked to be females of N. melanospilus, revealed that a couple of them had slightly different markings so we came to the conclusion that they were the females of this species which we have identified as N. sp. Kilombero TAN95/4. We were almost midway between Ifakara and the Kilombero River, so both the names for the new fish were equally appropriate. In 2002 both new species were scientifically described, and named N. geminus ( formerly N. sp. Ifakara ) and N. kilomberoensis ( formerly N. sp. Kilombero ).
Closer examination of the fish from this locality that was previously identified as N. melanospilus gave some cause for concern. Several features appear to be slightly at variance to the typical form of this species. Investigations are continuing but in the interim it is better that this fish be refered to as N. aff. melanospilus.
We returned to the Mikumi Wildlife Lodge for the night. According to one of the guidebooks a new route had been opened up, connecting the lodge with the lodges in the northern sector of the Selous Game Reserve. None of the locals new of any such road so we had to fall back on the next alternative which was the recognised route via Morogoro and Kisaki. Like the route to Ifakara this road was also hilly, being influenced by nearby Uluguru Mountains. We were almost at Kisaki before the terrain levelled out.
 On the western side of the road we noticed a small pool under an overhanging tree. This pool produced the largest specimens of N. melanospilus I had ever seen! In addition to these there was another species of Nothobranchius in the pool. These, at first sight in the net, were thought to be N. rubripinnis but again, on placing them in clean water in a bag, it was obvious that they were not N. rubripinnis but another superbly coloured species. The most striking features of this new fish were the bright orange outer band on a heavily fringed anal fin and a bright pinkish orange lower lip and throat region. This fish has proved to be very prolific and was initially distributed as N. sp. Kisaki TAN95/5. It has subsequently been scientifically described and named N. flammicomantis
As we continued so the track we were on got narrower until it was impossible to get the Landrover along it. We were also informed that just up ahead of us was a river that we would have to drive across but this would not be possible as the river was in flood! We had no alternative other than to return to Morogoro. At Morogoro we decided to try to get to Dar es Salaam for the night and make a further attempt to reach the Selous the following day by another route. By the time we got to our hotel in Dar, we had been on the road nearly 15 hours with only approximately an hour break at the Kisaki locality.

 TANZANIA 1995.

Part 2   Rufiji River

So far we had failed to get into the Selous Game Reserve via the Mikumi National Park and also the Morogoro/Kisaki route. The debate now was whether or not we would make it at the third attempt. This attempt was to take us down the road along which we had originally planned to return from the Selous, viz. via Kibiti.
Ten years earlier Ruud Wildekamp had travelled along this road and then it was an excellent tarmac surface, now nothing could be further from the truth! We had anticipated that it would take about two hours to reach Kibiti but by the time we got there it was 3pm. Admittedly we had stopped once on the way at the Mbezi River.
This is the type locality of N. rubripinnis and also N. luekei and is about 50km. south of Dar es Salaam. We managed to find a few pairs of N. rubripinnis but had to give up without finding a single specimen of N. luekei. It was our original intention upon reaching Kibiti to continue further south along the main road to the Ruhoi River - the type locality of N. eggersi. As it had taken us so long to get to Kibiti, we had to abandon the idea and aim for the Rufiji River Camp at which we had planned to stay for the night.
From Kibiti there was still about 110km. to go in a westerly direction to get to the camp and this was along dirt tracks. Initially the road surface was reasonable but it was undulating with floodwater in the depressions. This did not unduly delay us but it did not last for long! The depressions soon turned into mud holes which got progressively worse. Eventually, with about 70km. to go we stopped to confer. Should we turn back to Kibiti? It was now 5pm and would soon be getting dark.
 What happened next was one of those unbelievable occurrences. We were in the middle of nowhere when another Landrover appeared! In it were two wildlife conservation workers. We explained our situation to them and apparently they knew the route. As they were going to a place nearby the Rufiji River Camp they suggested that we follow them. This we did. We were soon past the worst of the mud and it was not long before it was dark. All we had to follow were two red lights varying in intensity according to the amount of dust blown up by the wheels of the vehicle in front.Eventually we made it to the camp and were greeted with surprise by the owner. It transpired that he had been there for three years and in all that time no "tourist" had arrived by road. The normal route is by light aircraft to the nearby landing strip. We explained the purpose of our trip to the owner. He said that he knew of the nearby pools, but there were no fish in them. However, he would show them to us the following morning.
The night was spent under canvas in a forest. Camping was never like this at home! We each had a tent to ourselves equipped with two four poster beds and well-equipped ensuite bathroom with all the mod cons including hot water and electricity. The following morning we were up and dressed before daybreak - courtesy of a troupe of extremely noisy monkeys in the trees around and above my tent. True to his word the camp owner was ready after breakfast to take us to the pools which were a couple or so kilometres away. He was astonished to see the contents of our nets once dipped into the water!
 These pools contained three species of killifish. They were N. janpapi, N. melanospilus and the one species that was the reason why we were so determined to get to this place, N. eggersi. This population was special. Many years ago a red phenotype had been collected near the Rufiji River Camp but, unfortunately, only a male survived. This was crossed with other populations of the same species and the offspring are the ancestors of the fish that have been circulating as 'Red' and incorrectly as 'Rufiji River Camp'. The pure aquarium strain produced from fish we collected from this locality is identified amongst aquarists as N. eggersi Red Rufiji River Camp TAN95/7. Let us hope that we will be able to keep the strain pure!
At this locality we noticed a number of fish eating spiders on the water surface and inadvertantly caught one in a net whilst searching for fish. This spider, very conveniently, stayed in the net long enough for us to take some photographs and then made a dash for the ground. Once on the ground it stopped again so more photo's were taken. It was not until I returned home and had the slides developed that I noticed that the spider, when on the ground, had hold of a fish! The head, and particularly the eye was visible in front of the spider. It's body must be lying from front to back underneath the spiders body.
 Precisely how it picked up the fish we are not sure but it must have done so as it dashed off the net. We were sure the fish was not under the spider when we photographed it in the net! The fish incidentally was N. janpapi, a fish that does tend to inhabit the upper waters , so in the pool would most likely be the prey of these spiders.
One of the reasons why we have put 'red' into the name of the N. eggersi from the camp is, that whilst trying to get to another pool, we came across some vehicle tracks full of water and here we also found N. eggersi.
This time, although only 2km. from locality 7, these fish were blue! There did not appear to be any obvious barrier separating the two populations, but barrier there must have been as both populations breed true to their respective colours. This other population is identified as N. eggersi Blue Rufiji River Camp TAN95/8.
We returned to the camp for lunch and then set off on the return journey to Kibiti where we planned to spend the night. We had been told that in the village there was a reasonably good guesthouse. As we left the camp a potential problem was identified - how to find our way back to Kibiti. Most of the route to the camp had involved following the vehicle in front in the dark! In daylight, as far as we could see in all directions (and a lot further!) it was just featureless dusty scrubland with a number of intersecting tracks. The only way out was to try to follow the wheel-tracks we had made the night before in the dust. Thank goodness it hadn't rained!
 On the way to the Rufiji River Camp, just before it had got dark, we had noticed an area, which looked as though it could have been a reasonable biotype for Nothobranchius. We stopped here on the return journey. Not unexpectedly it produced the usual N. melanospilus and N. janpapi. Suddenly, just as we were about to pack up and move on, Ruud Wildekamp called out to us. He had in his net another species that was at the top of our 'wants' list! It was the largest specimen of Nothobranchius I had ever seen. We had N. ocellatus - a specimen about 150mm long! Eventually we had six specimens of about the same size, which, very conveniently, were three pairs. They were so large we didn't have ideal sized bags for them but they survived very well. They had an oversized polystyrene box all to themselves. The only problems we had with them were a few leeches that appeared from time to time in the bags - where they came from was not clear. We also had to clear unfertilised eggs from the bags containing females.
We continued on our way but by the time we reached Kibiti it was well past dark. The guesthouse recommended to us turned out to be full, so we had to seek out the other guesthouse in the village. There is little one can say about the standard of this guesthouse other than at U.S. $1 for a room for the night it was grossly over priced! Needless to say, the next morning we were up and about very early!
The reason that we were keen on stopping at Kibiti was that it would provide us with the opportunity of getting to the type locality of N. eggersi. This was just under 20km. to the south of Kibiti on the road to Lindi. The locality is easy to identify as it is on the side of the road by the bridge over the Ruhoi River. At the locality we of course found the ubiquitous N. melanospilus but could only find females of N. eggersi. We left them in the pool and decided to continue southwards across the bridge in search of another pool. We ended up another 20 or so kilometres south of the Ruhoi at the Rufiji River where we turned around to start our journey back north to Dar es Salaam. About 1 km. from the Rufiji River we noticed some water that was not too promising in appearance but we stopped and collected a few N. melanospilus and N. janpapi. There were no N. eggersi.
 
It was back to the Ruhoi River before we encountered any more water. We stopped on the south side of the river and about 100m to the west we found a small pool containing both male and female N. eggersi. These we collected and are identified as N. eggersi Ruhoi River TAN95/11.
From here on the return journey to Dar was uneventful. We stopped again at locality TAN95/6 and collected a few more N. rubripinnis however there was still no N. luekei to be found. We continued north and arrived at our hotel in Dar whilst it was still daylight! This was the first time that this had been achieved on this expedition!

TANZANIA 1995

Part 3  Dar es Salaam to Arusha

We had planned to spend two nights in Dar es Salaam taking a day to make a circular trip around Bagamoyo, Msata, Chalinze and back to Dar. Bagamoyo is a town on the coast 75km. north of Dar. In its heyday during the last century, it was the starting point for various exploration trips into the interior, including those of Livingstone and Stanley. The body of Livingstone, who died in what is now central Zambia, was carried back to Bagamoyo by two of his servants, a journey of about a year. Here it remained until it was shipped back to England. Bagamoyo was a centre for the slave trade and for a short period was the capital of German East Africa. Today a lot of the original buildings still exist in the town centre but are deteriorating rapidly due to lack of care and maintenance.
 The road to Bagamoyo passes through the built up suburbs of Dar and the coastal holiday hotel zone before coming to more rural environs. The only stop we made along this road was at Zinga where a permanent stream ran underneath the road, To the west was a large plantation of palm trees. This stream yielded cichlids, gobies, etc., as well as killifish. Although it was clearly permanent water it contained N. melanospilus which we did not bother to collect. There were other killifish in the same water – Lampeyes - more specifically Aplocheilichthys maculatus. We found some considerable variation between individuals of this population such that some doubt could be cast on the status of Aplo. lacustris, which was originally described as sub species of Aplo. maculatus and subsequently separated into a species in its own right.
We passed through Bagamoyo taking the road that would lead us to the ferry across the Ruvu River estuary. Soon we found ourselves on a road that was only one vehicle wide on an embankment. The land on either side was a flat grassy plain. Eventually we saw a little water so stopped and got out the nets. The vegetation was coarse grass and scrub making it difficult to get a net into the water. Although not common we found both N. melanospilus and N. janpapi and then another of the fish that was on our list of ‘wants’. It may come as a surprise to a lot of people when I say that the fish was N. foerschi.
 The reason we were so interested in finding this fish was that, so far as we were aware, there had never been a verifiable collection of this fish. Originally it was described from material that had arrived in a commercial import. It was thought that it originated in the vicinity of Dar es Salaam. Eggers reported finding N. foerschi near the Rufiji River Camp but this cannot be confirmed, as there is apparently no photographic evidence or specimens available. Until it can be established otherwise, this collection, between Bagamoyo and the Ruvu ferry, could be regarded as being the first confirmed locality for this species. Another Nothobranchius species was found at this locality. Visually there was some similarity to N. foerschi but where it differed was that it had feint vertical lines on the sides of both the male and female. My own experience in breeding this fish is that they breed true and produce 100% offspring with the same bars. Pending resolution of the status of this fish it was known as N. spec. Bagamoyo TAN95/13. Subsequently other populations of the same fish were found in 1997 and it was scientifically described, and named N. annectens (DKG Journal, 30(3):52-63, 1998)
 When we got to the ferry we were disappointed to hear that we would not be allowed to cross. It would seem that during the recent rainy season the road on the north side of the river, that would take us to Msata, had disappeared! We had no option other than to retrace our route back to Dar es Salaam. Previously, just outside Dar, another killifish had been collected. This was a species that lives in brackish water, Pantonodon podoxys. The area where it was previously found is now part of the built up part of the city. Even if we could have found some water, the chances of finding this fish must be considered remote due to water pollution.
The next day we set off for Tanga, one of Tanzania’s principal towns and an important port. The road initially took us inland, across the Ruvu River to Chalinze, at which point we turned north to Tanga. Close to the Ruvu River is the village of Kwaraza and between the two is the type locality of N. lourensi and N. janpapi. Needless to say we stopped. Fish were not easy to find here and we never did find any N. lourensi at this locality. Eventually we had N. janpapi and N. melanospilus and two other females that were not identifiable. We then found one solitary male but it was not N. lourensi. It was identical in appearance to the fish we had found at Kisaki, with the same orange outer band on the heavily fringed anal fin and the brilliant orange/pink throat region. i.e. N flammicomantis. We assumed that the two females belonged to this male and subsequent breeding confirmed this. The locality is identified as Kwaraza TAN95/14. This was also the last time we were to find N. melanospilus on this trip!
The next day we set off from Tanga to travel north, up to the Kenyan border. We intended to turn inland which would take us into an area between the border and the Usambara Mountains. On the outskirts of Tanga a new road was under construction and this ran along the rear edge of a mangrove swamp. Brackish water! We soon found a pool and in it found Pantanodon podoxys. Our activities attracted a small crowd of local people but it was only when we had finished that they warned us of crocodiles in the area! These fish survived the journey and are distributed as Pantanodon podoxys TAN95/15.
 Further along the road at Gezani we collected an attractive population of N. palmqvisti. These were in a surprisingly deep roadside ditch. They have been introduced as N. palmqvisti Gezani TAN95/16.When we arrived at the border we were disappointed to discover that the road on our maps, that would take us behind the Usambara Mountains, did not exist! We returned to Tanga and in the afternoon took the road south to Pangani. In the first 10km. we found N. palmqvisti at several places but did not collect them. At Pangani we elected to take a triangular route back to Tanga. We turned inland taking the road to Muheza. In one place we found another population of N. palmqvisti, which we did not collect, and thereafter we did not stop again as it was getting late.
 The following day we set off from Tanga along the main road past Muheza to Mruwazi where we turned off taking a minor road to the town of Korogwe. We had travelled just over 20km. along this road when we came across a roadside pool containing some Nothobranchius. At first we thought they were N. palmqvisti but closer examination of the males, which were somewhat immature and hence poorly coloured, confirmed that they were not N. palmqvisti but something else that we could not identify. When we reached Korogwe, instead of turning right up the main road to Arusha, we went straight across taking the road to Handeni. We stopped at a likely biotype some 10km. from Korogwe. After searching for quite some time we found water and in it were the same fish that we had collected at the last locality. These were slightly more mature specimens and in consequence better coloured.
We returned back to Korogwe and turned onto the main road that would take us to Mombo and our overnight hotel at nearby Lesotho up in the mountains. A few kilometres before reaching Mombo we stopped again and found this same species. This time they were very colourful specimens.
We now had a pretty good idea of the identity of the fish we had found at the last three localities. These were N. vosseleri, a species described by Ahl in 1924 but for many years considered to be a synonym of N. palmqvisti. To the best of my knowledge there is no other record of this fish being collected since Vosseler found the original specimen.
The three populations are identified as N. vosseleri Korogwe North TAN95/17. Korogwe South TAN95/18 and Mombo TAN95/19. We also collected this species at another locality just north of Mombo. This latter population was used for a re-description of the species and never distributed amongst aquarists. Populations 17 and 18 were bluish in background coloration whereas 19 and the un-numbered population from Mombo had a yellowish background colour on the body.
 We spent the Thursday night up in the mountains at Lesotho in what, in its day, was probably a good hotel. Now it is showing signs of its age, nevertheless, it was still better than a lot of the accommodation we had stayed in on this trip! The following day we travelled back to Arusha from where we had set off almost two weeks and 4500km. previously. There was no opportunity for fishing. Saturday was spent bagging up the fish for the journey home. We left Kilimanjaro Airport on the Saturday evening at the end of what had been an extremely successful collecting trip.

TANZANIA 1995.
Locations and Species collected.

Ian Sainthouse BKA

 

 

The following is a compilation, by Dr. Brian Watters, of the species and locations in respect of the 1995 collecting trip to Tanzania undertaken by Ruud Wildekamp Dr. Brian Waters and your truly.

During this trip we were successful in locating the true Nothobranchius eggersi Red Rufiji River Camp TAN 95/7, the true N. eggersi blue Rufiji River Camp TAN 95/8 and the true N. eggersi blue Ruhoi River TAN 95/11. May I stress at this point the importance of using the full code for these fishes so as to ensure, hopefully, that they do not become mixed and crossed in the future.
In some of the locations other known species were found but not collected. Dr. Brian Watters under took to produce the location material so that only one version was produced.

 

1.         N. neumanni Manyara TAN 95/1 Pool at a culvert on the Arusha-Dodoma road(A104), 3.2km south of end of new tramac near Majingu phosphate plant, or 6.4krn south of junct. with Tarangire road at Madukani village.

2.         N.taeniopygus  Mbuyuni          TAN 95/2        Shallow pools in a flat, flooded grassy, swampy area on the west side of the Arusha- Dodoma road (A104) 6.5km north of Mbuyuni.

3 N. melanosplius Kidete TAN 95/3 Series of pools forming part of a local seasonal drainage system, at culvert and extending away from road, 2km north of Kidete in the Mkundi - Wami drainage system (Approx 651an N.W. of Morogoro.

4. N. melanospilus Ifakara TAN 95/4 Interconnected pools and flooded gassy area with some large trees, 21an south of Ifakara on the east side of road to ferry across the Kilombero river. Northern most of a series of pools between Ifakara and the ferry.

4 N. lourensi    Ifakara TAN 95/4 As for N.melanospilus above. TAN 95/4

4 N.species      Ifakara TAN 95/4        As for N. melanospilus above .TAN 95/4 (Aphyobranchius)

4          N. species        Kilombero       TAN 95/4        Interconnected pools and flooded gassy area with some large trees, 2km south of Ifakara on the east side of the road to Kilombero river ferry. Northernmost of a series of pools between Ifakara and the ferry.

5          N. melanospilus           Kisaki  TAN 95/5 Small pool at N.W. side of road Morogoro -Kisaki, 10kn S. W. of Dutumi village and approx 17km N.B. of Kisaki

5*        N. species        Kisaki  TAN 95/5 As forN. melanospilus TAN 95/5

6          Aply.    Mbezi river      TAN 95/6        Pools and flooded swampy areas forming

kongoranensis  part of the Mbezi river system, 50km souht of Dar es Salaam on the B2 road.

6          Aply. lacustris  Mbezi river      TAN 95/6        As for Aply. kongoranensis TAN 95/6

6          N. rubripinnis   Mbezi river      TAN 95/6        As for Aply. kongoranensis TAN 95/6

7 N. eggersi Red Rufiji river Camp TAN 95/7 Shallow pools on a flat area about 3km N.E. of Rufiji river Camp, Selous Game Reserve. Beho Beho river - Rufiji river drainage system.

7          janpapi Rufiji river Camp          TAN 95/7        As for N. eggersi TAN 95/7 above.

8          N. eggersi Blue            Rufiji river Camp          TAN 95/8        Flooded road tracks crossing a swampy area about 5km N.E. of Rufiji river Camp, Selous Game Reserve. Beho Beho river -Rufiji river drainage system.

9          N. ocellatus      Kikonkono      TAN 95/9 Pool on immediate north side of road, 57km           east of Selous Game Reserve east gate on road to Kibiti, 3km west of Kikonkono village and 20km west of road junction (to Kibiti) at Mkongo village.

10        N. melanospilus           Ndundu           TAN 95/10 Pools on either side of the road at a series of culverts, Ilan north of Ndundu (ferry terminal at Ruflji river), main road to Dar es Salaam.

10        N. janpapi        Ndundu           TAN 95/10 As N. melanospilus TAN 95/10 above.

11        N. eggersi Blue            Ruhoi river       TAN 95/11 Small pools adjacent to the Ruhoi river, immediately SW. of the bridge, 21km north of Ndundu or 18km south of Kibiti, on the main road to Dar es Salaam.

12        Aply. maculatus           Zinga    TAN 95/12 Small stream just north of Zings village, on the B1212 road from Dar es Salaam to Bagamoyo.

13 N. melanospilus Bagamoyo TAN 95/13 Roadside pools and flooded grassy areas on the flood plain of the River Ruvu, a few kilometers from the ferry terminal west of Bagamoyo.

13        N. foerschi       Bagamoyo       TAN 95/13 As for N. melanospilus TAN 95/13 above.

13 * * N. species        Bagamoyo       TAN 95/13 As for N. melanospilus TAN 95/13 above.

14        N. melanospilus           Kwaraza          TAN 95/14 Roadside pools at culverts, flooded grassy areas and remnant pools on the flood plain of the River Ruvu, about 500m east of the river.

14        N. janpapi        Kwaraza          TAN 95/14 As for N. melanospilus TAN 95/14 above.

14*      N. species        Kwaraza          TAN 95/14 Very small and shallow remnant pools, south of the main Dar es Salaam to Morogoro road (A7), on a once flooded part of the floodplain of the Ruvu river, about 500m east of the river

15        Pantanodon Padoxys   Tanga   TAN 95/15 Esturine stream at the head of extensive

tidal mangrove swamps at a bridge 9km north of Tanga on the main A14 road.

16        N. palmqvisti    Gezani  TAN 95/16 Ditch at a culvert draining a swampy area and rice fields, on southern outskirts of Gezani village, about 35km north of Tanga on main A14 road.

17        N. vosseleri      Korogowe       TAN 95/17 Small, shallow roadside pool, 10km N.E.

North   of Korogwe on B 123 road, approx. 200m N.E. of a bridge over a small stream.

18        N. vosseleri      Korogowe       TAN 95/18 Narrow drainage ditch on the floodplain of the Koluguzao river (tributary of the Pangani river) about 200m N.W. of the Korogwe to Handeni road, 12km S.W. of Korogwe.

19 N. vosseleri Mombo TAN 95/19 Slow flowing stream and adjacent flooded grassy area, both adjacent to rice fields, on west side of Bl road, 31 km N.W. of Korogwe or 12km S.E. of Mombo.

*     Identical in appearance.

**        Uncertain status - may be a varient of N. foerschi but pending clarification identify as N. spec. Bagamoyo TAN 95/13.